Giamila Fantuzzi's Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease PDF

By Giamila Fantuzzi

This e-book offers a complete survey of adipose tissue, its physiological capabilities, and its function in sickness. the quantity spans the total variety of adipose tissue experiences, from easy anatomical and physiological study to epidemiology and medical reports. Groundbreaking contemporary reviews are included into conventional versions of adipose tissue homes. an outline of the position of macrophages in weight problems and metabolism in incorporated.

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Extra resources for Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease (Nutrition & Health)

Sample text

In vitro studies have shown that angiotensin II stimulates lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes (51). This effect involves SREBP-1c and is mediated by the angiotensin type 2 receptor (52). Deletion of this receptor results in adipocyte hypotrophy and resistance to dietinduced obesity (53). These mice have a reduced expression in adipocytes of SREBP-1c, FAS but also of LPL, FAT, and aP2, suggesting that angiotensin II stimulates several pathways of TAG storage. Angiotensinogen is overexpressed in the adipose tissue of obese subjects (54), particularly in visceral adipose tissue, and could therefore have a role in the development of obesity.

Note the characteristic multilocular lipid organization of the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Hibernoma removed from the skin of a 16-yr-old male patient. Bar = 15 Rm. The signal for brown adipocyte activation is a temperature below thermoneutrality (34°C for mice, 28°C for rats, 20–22°C for humans), that induces activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These neurons of the sympathetic chain directly reach brown adipocytes in the adipose organ (14). These two functions of the two tissues of the adipose organ (WAT and BAT) are therefore balanced between them, because the intrinsic energy of lipids can be accumulated (WAT) or dissipated (BAT).

Bar = 2 Rm. Adrenergic receptors (F1, 2 and G1, 2, and 3) are present in the adipose organ. The density of parenchymal fibers varies according to the functional status of the organ. During cold exposure the noradrenergic parenchymal fibers increase their number in the brown part of the organ (8). During fasting, the noradrenergic parenchymal fibers increase their number in the white part of the organ (9). Vascular noradrenergic fibers are also immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y. The vast majority of these nerves also contain noradrenaline (9,10), suggesting that they belong to the sympathetic nerve supply to WAT blood vessels.

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