By Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi
Algae supply power to supply renewable chemical compounds and fuels utilizing solar power and carbon dioxide from surroundings or in flue gases whereas at the same time lowering the iteration of greenhouse gases. because those should be grown on marginal lands with micronutrients and macronutrients frequently found in waste streams, algae-based chemical compounds and fuels don't compete with meals. nonetheless large-scale creation of algae-based fuels and chemical substances faces substantial technological and competitively priced demanding situations and it's going to by way of necessity require a biorefinery method in which all of the attainable algal parts are switched over into value-added compounds. the current sequence on algal biorefineries represents a discussion board for reporting the cutting-edge of alternative applied sciences in addition to the most recent advances during this box. the amount II of this sequence enhances the amount I by way of the present state-of-the-art. varied chapters during this quantity deal with diversified matters starting from genetically modifies algae to new items to life-cycle research of algal products.
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Extra resources for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design
J. Glass product that could be anticipated to arise from biotechnology. Specifically, although it was decided that existing laws administered by the USDA could be used to regulate genetically engineered (transgenic) plants, new regulations under those laws would be needed. In addition, there were a number of potential uses for genetically modified microorganisms that could be regulated under EPA’s existing statutory authority to regulate new chemicals (TSCA; discussed below), but here too a set of new rules would be needed to use this law to regulate microorganisms.
Recent reviews of strategies focused on improving bio-based chemical production include He et al. (2014) (Zymomonas as production organism), Hong and Nielsen (2012) and Nielsen et al. (2013) (S. cerevisiae as production organism), Cao et al. (2011), Yu et al. (2011), and Chen et al. (2013) (E. coli as production organism), as well as Cao et al. (2013), summarizing methods for production of succinic acid, and more general reviews from Adrio and Demain (2010), Chen and Nielsen (2013) and Buschke et al.
Potential disruption of natural ecosystems, such as native algae populations. Creation or enhancement of harmful algal blooms or ecologically disruptive algal blooms. Government Regulation of the Uses of Genetically Modified Algae and Other… 29 subject of academic study, often in the context of deliberate environmental uses of GMMs in agriculture or for bioremediation. (Sayler and Ripp 2000; Davison 2005; Viebahn et al. 2009; Urgun-Demirtas et al. 2006; Singh et al. 2011). g. in agriculture), not all of it may be directly applicable to industrial uses of GMMs that are either contained in traditional fermentation processes or conducted in controlled outdoor reactors; however what has been learned from such studies may present baseline information to help assess potential adverse effects should there ever be a large-scale accidental release of industrial GMMs from production vessels.