New PDF release: Analog Design Centering and Sizing

By Helmut E. Graeb

What you’ll locate here's a attention-grabbing compendium of primary challenge formulations of analog layout centering and sizing. This crucial paintings offers a differentiated wisdom in regards to the projects of analog layout centering and sizing. particularly, worst-case situations are formulated and analyzed. This paintings is correct on the crossing aspect among strategy and layout know-how, and is either reference paintings and textbook for knowing CAD equipment in analog sizing.

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Nxs . This step is based on methods to create pseudo-random sequences of real numbers between 0 and 1. This is implemented for instance by a linear feedback shift register, where the XOR operation of several bits is fed back to the input. Another approach is a multiple recursive generator zk = wn /ν, wn := (a1 wn−1 + . . + aµ wn−µ ) mod ν, of order µ and a prime modulus ν. Programming libraries usually contain functions for the generation of uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers. e.

The statistical variations are modeled in form of probability 28 ANALOG DESIGN CENTERING AND SIZING density functions of the statistical parameters. 1, the capacitance and the resistance are statistical parameters. In CMOS circuits, mainly transistor model parameters, like for instance oxide thickness, threshold voltage or channel length reduction, form the statistical parameters. In the RC circuit, design parameters and statistical parameters are identical. This corresponds to an analog circuit with discrete elements, as against to an analog integrated circuit.

Parameters & Tolerances, Performance & Specification 45 Local variations on circuit level are usually assumed as statistically independent variations of individual transistors. Local variations decrease with increasing gate area and increasing distance between transistors [95]. They lead to different behaviors of transistors in a circuit, a so-called mismatch. But analog circuits are formed of transistor pairs like current mirrors requiring an identical behavior of the transistors in a pair and are therefore very sensitive to mismatch.

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