Download e-book for iPad: Animal Hematotoxicology: A Practical Guide for Toxicologists by G.O. Evans

By G.O. Evans

Hematology information from in vivo toxicology reviews is still one among  the main predictive measures for human chance, because the similar measurements made in pre-clinical toxicology reports could be made in early scientific trials.

Covering the 3 major blood telephone varieties – erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes, this paintings is designed to elucidate themes for brand spanking new entrants to the fields of laboratory animal hematology and toxicology, in particular these issues the place the principles for human hematology don't constantly practice. a complete bankruptcy is dedicated to immunotoxicology, a systematic self-discipline that's heavily aligned with hematology.

The textual content additionally addresses pre-analytical and analytical variables that impact animal reports, as those play a much more vital half while reading info not like people the place lots of those variables could be good managed or have much less physiological impression. info has been collated from released papers, textbooks and unpublished facts: Readers are supplied with key references to inspire extra examine

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Extra info for Animal Hematotoxicology: A Practical Guide for Toxicologists and Biomedical Researchers

Sample text

Polycythemia Absolute or true polycythemia describes conditions where the blood hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and total red cell mass are above normal levels. This is rare but may be caused by rapid stimulation of EPO production with increased erythropoiesis; cobalt appears to cause polycythemia via its effects on EPO production (Templeton, 1992). Secondary polycythemia is associated with generalized tissue hypoxia as a result of hypoventilation or pulmonary damage. Pseudopolycythemia, or relative polycythemia, is more common, and describes conditions where blood hemoglobin and erythrocytic parameters are elevated, but these changes are caused by reductions of plasma volume.

Haematol. Int. 1:106–11. indb 20 6/24/08 5:26:43 AM Hemopoiesis, Blood Cell Types, and Bone Marrow Examination 21 Clark, R. , and Korst, D. R. 1969. Circadian periodicity of bone marrow, mitotic activity and reticulocyte counts in rats and mice. Science 166:236–37. Criswell, K. , Bleavins, M. , and Zandee, J. C. 1998. Comparison of flow cytometric and manual bone marrow differentials in Wistar rats. Cytometry 32:9–17. Martin, R. , Brott, D. , Zandec, J. , and McKeel, M. J. 1992. Differential analysis of animal bone marrow by flow cytometry.

In this chapter, some of the erythrocytic measurements and morphological comments, functions, and kinetics are discussed, followed by notes on various anemias and polycythemias. Preanalytical and analytical variables affecting erythrocytic measurements are discussed later in Chapters 9 and 10. The common abbreviations for red cell measurements are: Hb or Hgb HCT MCH MCHC MCV RBC Hemoglobin concentration Hematocrit (expressed as a decimal fraction or ratio); derived as HCT = RBC × MCV divided by 100; may also be measured by centrifugation as packed cell volume (PCV expressed as %) Mean corpuscular (or cell) hemoglobin; absolute hemoglobin concentration per erythrocyte; derived as MCH (pg) = Hb divided by RBC multiplied by 10 Mean cell hemoglobin concentration; relative quantity of Hb per erythrocyte; measured directly from the optical properties of the cell, or derived as MCHC (g/dl) = Hb divided by hematocrit Mean corpuscular (or cell) volume; measured directly or derived as HCT multiplied by 1000 divided by RBC Red blood cell count (erythrocyte) The calculations are based on SI units and the expression of hemoglobin concentration as g/dl (see Appendix D).

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