By Pradyumna S. Singh, Edgar D. Goluch (auth.), Noam Eliaz (eds.)
The learn of electrochemical nanotechnology has emerged as researchers observe electrochemistry to nanoscience and nanotechnology. those similar volumes within the Modern features of Electrochemistry sequence assessment fresh advancements and breakthroughs within the particular program of electrochemistry and nanotechnology to biology and drugs. the world over well known specialists give a contribution chapters that deal with either basic and functional points of a number of key rising applied sciences in biomedicine, similar to the processing of recent biomaterials, biofunctionalization of surfaces, characterization of biomaterials, discovery of novel phenomena and organic methods happening on the molecular level.
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Extra info for Applications of Electrochemistry and Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine II
Thus, for a typical value of diffusion constant D = 10-5 cm2/s and an electrode of radius r = 10 nm, one can in principle measure rate constants as high as k0 = 100 cm/s. It is not surprising, therefore, that the most extensive application of nanoelectrodes has Nanoelectrochemistry 21 been to measure fast electrode kinetics of various redox species in solution. Besides enabling the measurement of fast heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics, nanoelectrodes also offer the opportunity to test the applicability of classical transport theories in explaining observed voltammetric behavior.
The potentialdependent orientation of the molecules resulted in notably potential-dependent SERS response. By varying the electrode spacing, the redox cycling by ferricyanide or crystal violet molecules, the collection efficiency, and surface amplification could be optimized. 144 Timedependent fluctuations were observed from a roughened silver electrode in dilute solutions of rhodamine and congo red, attributed to the very small number of SERS-active molecules probing nanoscopic hot spots. The tailed statistics as a function of applied potential were linked to single-molecule dynamics.
For electrochemical in-situ STM and AFM, the conducting probe tip, together with the substrate, reference and auxiliary electrodes are immersed in electrolyte and connected to a bipotentiostat. To suppress diffusive background current, all but the very end of the tip needs to be insulated, thereby creating a nanoscopic electrode with all the fabrication and characterization consequences discussed above. Electrochemical STM and electrochemical AFM can thus be regarded as enhanced nanoscopic equivalents of SECM, by which adsorbed molecules can be individually addressed, the direct tunneling junction or diffusive mediator-bridged gap can be modulated, and the surface topography can be simultaneously probed.