Fermentation items of basic metabolism reminiscent of ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid have been the 1st advertisement items of the fermentation undefined, through citric acid and similar items of fungal foundation. As high-volume/low-price items they nonetheless occupy most sensible positions within the respective markets. a number of of those, specifically alcohols, have attracted extra recognition as attainable resources of other strength companies and chemical substances. This quantity describes conception and perform of construction of those commodities - from classical procedures to most up-to-date advancements - and likewise presents info at the proper uncooked fabrics. Futhermore, items with regards to basic metabolism are taken care of during this volume.
themes incorporated are: Sugar-Based/Starch-Based uncooked fabrics - Ethanol - Glycerol and different Polyols - Acetone, Butanol, Isopropanol - 2,3-Butanediol - Lactic Acid - Citric Acid - Gluconic Acid - additional natural Acids - Acetic Acid - PHB and different Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acids - Amino Acids - Nucleotides - Extracellular Polysaccharides - Biosurfactants
Chapter 1a Sugar?Based uncooked fabrics for Fermentation functions (pages 4–29): Eberhard Stoppok and Klaus Buchholz
Chapter 1b Starch?Based uncooked fabrics for Fermentation functions (pages 31–46): Jean?Claude De Troostembergh
Chapter 2 uncooked fabric innovations – most economical difficulties (pages 47–56): Friedrich Schneider and Horst Steinmuller
Chapter three Ethanol – Classical tools (pages 58–120): Thomas Senn and Hans Joachim Pieper
Chapter four Ethanol – power resource of power and Chemical items (pages 121–203): Naim Kosaric
Chapter five Microbial construction of Glycerol and different Polyols (pages 205–227): Hans?Jurgen Rehm
Chapter 6 Microbial construction of Acetone/Butanol/Isopropanol (pages 229–268): Peter Durre and Hubert Bahl
Chapter 7 Microbial construction of 2,3?Butanediol (pages 269–291): Ian S. Maddox
Chapter eight Lactic Acid (pages 293–306): Jan S. Kascak, Jiri Kominek and Max Roehr
Chapter nine Citric Acid (pages 307–345): Max Roehr, Christian P. Kubicek and Jiri Kominek
Chapter 10 Gluconic Acid (pages 347–362): Max Roehr, Christian P. Kubicek and Ji?ci Kominek
Chapter eleven extra natural Acids (pages 363–379): Max Roehr and Christian P. Kubicek
Chapter 12 Acetic Acid (pages 381–401): Heinrich Ebner, Sylvia Sellmer and Heinrich Follmann
Chapter thirteen PHB and different Polhydroxyalkanoic Acids (pages 403–464): Alexander Steinbuchel
Chapter 14a Amino Acids – Technical creation and Use (pages 465–502): W. Leuchtenberger
Chapter 14b Enzymology of Amino Acid construction (pages 503–560): Nobuyoshi Esaki, Shigeru Nakamori, Tatsuo Kurihara, Setsuo Furuyoshi and Kenji Soda
Chapter 15 Nucleotides and similar Compounds (pages 561–612): Akira Kuninaka
Chapter sixteen Extracellular Polysaccharides (pages 613–657): Ian W. Sutherland
Chapter 17 Biosurfactants (pages 659–717): Naim Kosaric
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Extra resources for Biotechnology: Products of Primary Metabolism, Volume 6, Second Edition
1954), Alcoholic fermentation of molasses, in: Industrial L. , HICKEY, Fermentations (UNDERKOFLER, R. ), pp. 73-94. New York: Chemical Publishing Co. Inc. HONIG,P. (1953, 1959, 1963), Principles of Sugar Technology, Vols. 1-111. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ICUMSA (1979), Sugar Analysis, ICUMSA Methods. ), Int. Comm. for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis, Peterborough, England. ICUMSA (1994), Methods Book. Publication Department, c/o British Sugar Technical Center, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7 UB, England.
Vital gluten is a very valuable product of the wheat starch industry and is used as dough improver for bread and in pet food. Wheat is finely milled, then the bran fraction is separated from the wheat flour on screens. A dough is prepared by mixing the wheat flour with water. Sieving and screening is again used to separate the vital gluten from the starch fraction. Many precautions must be taken to preserve the functional properties of gluten for bread making. Heat or contact with oxygen or chemicals are known to induce loss of vitality.
13 <20 < 10 < 10 < 100 < 10 (SHIMURA,1985) mainly are produced from glucose syrups as raw material. Xanthan polysaccharide production from glucose syrups has been described by ROSEIRO et al. (1992), ATKINSON and MAVITUNA (1993). Other poly(1991), and EYSSAUTIER saccharides like curdlan produced by Alcaligenes faecalis or scleroglucan produced by Sclerotium rolfsii are made from glucose (MARGARITIS and PACE,1985). Glucose syrups are also used for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Alcaligenes eutrophus (COLLINS,1987).