By L. Sansone
Drawing on 15 years of study in Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Suriname, and the Netherlands, Sansone explores the very other ways that race and ethnicity are developed in Brazil and the remainder of Latin the US. He compares Latin American conceptions of race to US and ecu notions of race which are outlined via truly identifiable black-white ethnicities. Sansone argues that knowing extra advanced, ambiguous notions of tradition and identification will extend overseas discourse on race and movement it clear of American definitions that inadequately describe racial distinction. He additionally explores the consequences of globalization on buildings of race.
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Extra info for Blackness Without Ethnicity: Race and Construction of Black Identity in Brazil
Members of the younger generation, those between 15 and 25 years old, are particularly aware of these contradictions (Sansone 1993). In comparison with their parents, their educational level is substantially higher, they spend more of their leisure time outside their residential community, and they are less respectful of the traditional status (and racial) system, but are also more often out of work or less satisfied with their work positions. In sketching the history of race relations in modern Brazil, of course, one cannot leave out developments in black activism.
Many of the channels of social mobility that had been very important and central to the creation of a black middle class are not seen as important by the younger generations. For example, opportunities in old manual trades (basketmaking, subsistence fishing, and dock working), heavy industry, and even in some sections of public employment have decreased, and the value of salaries has collapsed, contributing to a lowering of the formerly relatively high status of these jobs. In general, the collapse of salary structure leads to the loss of status in many, particularly unskilled, jobs.
The Numbers in Perspective The data presented in the two previous sections reflect only a snapshot of the color composition of those interviewed and do not say very much about the mechanism and meaning of the color classification system. Ideally, in order to understand how this system functions, and to illustrate its manner of operating, it will be necessary to study the self-description of color of the same person in different situations. My data, as well as that of many other research projects carried out in Bahia (among others, Harris 1964 and 1970; Degler 1971; Harris et al.