Catalysis by Nonmetals. Rules for Catalyst Selection by Oleg V. Krylov PDF

By Oleg V. Krylov

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12 t h e r e is no such effect. T h e a p p a r e n t ' ' s t r e t c h i n g o u t ' ' of t h e picture in t h e diagonal directions arises because t h e regions in t h e u p p e r left and lower right corners are difficult to reach by e x p e r i m e n t (too large or too small reaction rates). T h e indicated explanation of t h e relationship between log and ¿"is analogous to t h e explanation given by C r e m e r [81], according to which t h e relationship of log to Ε results from t h e presence on t h e surface of t h e catalyst of two or t h r e e types of centers each with sharply different values of log and E, T h e w i d t h of t h e forbidden zone, and not t h e type of c o n d u c t i o n , is Hkely to be t h e d e t e r m i n i n g factor in t h e case of catalysis and a d s o r p t i o n on semiconductors with small w i d t h of t h e forbidden zone.

18. -zone for a series of oxides of transition metals [151]. SC2O3 TÍ2O3 V2O3 CrjOa M a , 0 3 anion-cation interaction; therefore, t h e 3¿-orbitals are not overlapped and do not form a ¿-zone; an electron o n t h e m has a very small mobility. D u e to the high mobility of holes of t h e 2/)-zone of oxygen, conduction of the majority of oxides of t h e transition metals is carried out by holes. According to t h e works of G o o d e n o u g h [157] a n d G e l d a n d T s k h a i [158], cation-cation interaction exists even in t h a t case, w h e n not m o r e t h a n three electrons are present on t h e 3¿-levels.

T h e n ΔΙΙ^ will be equal to t h e energy of ionization of an atom of t h e d o p e in a v a c u u m , divided by and multiplied by t h e ratio of the effective mass of a c u r r e n t carrier (electron or hole) m* to its normal mass m. 5 is the energy of ionization of a hydrogen atom in a v a c u u m in electron volts. 4. DOPED LEVELS 37 O n e can c o m p u t e the effective mass m* from a m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e Hall effect and thermoelectromotive force. 087 eV. , close to t h e calculated value and almost i n d e ­ p e n d e n t of t h e chemical n a t u r e of t h e atoms of t h e d o p i n g material.

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