Download e-book for iPad: Chemical and functional properties of food components by Zdzisław E Sikorski

By Zdzisław E Sikorski

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Electrochemical transfer experiments indicate a total of 16 molecules of water around Na+ and about 10 around K+. The bound water is less mobile and denser than HOH molecules in bulk water. At some distance, the bonding arrangements melt into a dynamic configuration of pure water. 1) where ε is the dielectric constant of the medium. For a vacuum, ε = 1 Debye unit, whereas for bulk water, ε = 80; this implies that the energies associated with electrostatic interactions in aqueous media are approximately 100 times smaller than the energies of covalent association, but increase considerably in the interior of a protein molecule.

In some respects, standards for bottled water are more stringent than those for tap water because of the shelf life requirement for bottled water. There are basically three types of bottled water: 1. Natural mineral water must come from an underground source. It receives no treatment other than filtration or carbonation, and is bottled at the source. Natural mineral water must meet tight microbiological standards and be regularly tested. 2. Spring water may come from other sources. It must also be bottled at the source and meet microbiological and chemical standards.

Water flow through the protein channel is controlled by the number of protein copies in the membrane. , 1994). , 2004). 1 INTRODUCTION Water, with a density of 1000 kg ⋅ m–3, is denser than the oil components of foods; oils and fats typically have densities in the range 850 to 950 kg ⋅ m–3. Glycerols and sugar solutions are denser than water. Unlike solid phases of most other liquids, ice is less dense than liquid water, and ice has a lower thermal conductivity than water. These properties have an effect on the freezing of foods that are predominantly water based; the formation of an ice layer on the surface of the liquids and the outside of solids has the effect of slowing down the freezing rate.

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