By Raymond S Koff; George Y Wu
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20. Forns X, Thimme R, Govindarajan S, Emerson SU, Purcell RH, Chisari FV, Bukh J. Hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope protein is infectious and causes acute resolving or persistent infection in chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97: 13,318–13,323. 21. Colombo M. Hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Disease 1999; 19: 263–267. 2 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Robert L. , MD CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C RISK OF CHRONIC INFECTION AND SEQUELAE OF DISEASE MODES OF TRANSMISSION SPECIAL PATIENT POPULATIONS SUMMARY REFERENCES INTRODUCTION There are striking epidemiological and clinical parallels between hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections .
Cerny A, Chisari FV. Pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C: immunological features of hepatic injury and viral persistence. Hepatology 1999; 30: 595–601. 20. Forns X, Thimme R, Govindarajan S, Emerson SU, Purcell RH, Chisari FV, Bukh J. Hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope protein is infectious and causes acute resolving or persistent infection in chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97: 13,318–13,323. 21. Colombo M. Hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma.
30. Beasley RP, Stevens CE, Shiao IS, Meng HC. Evidence against breast-feeding as a mechanism for vertical transmission of hepatitis B. Lancet 1975; 2: 740–741. 31. Mast EE, Alter MJ. Hepatitis C. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1997; 8: 17–22. 32. Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997; 26: 62S–65S. 33. Kumar A, Kulkarni R, Murray DL, Gera R, Scott-Emuakpor AB, Bosma K, et al. Serologic markers of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and D in patients with hemophilia. J Med Virol 1993; 41: 205–209.