By Berch Berberoglu
The research of sophistication constitution is important to the knowledge of society and social transformation, as those are in response to category relatives and sophistication fight. This paintings provides a category research method of the research of society and social kin. The ebook presents a severe research of significant theories of inequality, an research of sophistication constitution in several societies, and the connection among type, race, and gender.
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Outlined in its clearest and most concise form in his classic work The State and Revolution, Lenin explains that in all class societies, the class essence of the state’s rule over society is rooted in domination and exploitation by a propertied ruling class of the propertyless, oppressed class. ” 22 Freedom in capitalist society always remains about the same as it was in the ancient Greek republics: freedom for the slave-owners. . Democracy for an insignificant minority, democracy for the rich—that is the democracy of capitalist society.
374. 26. , p. 272. 27. By hegemony, Gramsci meant the ideological predominance of the dominant ruling class(es) over the subordinate. At the same time, and in response to this, he introduced the concept of counterhegemony, which occurs when the proletariat, with the aid of “organic” intellectuals, exerts hegemony and exercises its superiority over society through the establishment of a proletarian socialist state. 28. Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks (New York: International Publishers, 1971), p.
Although in most of human history, for thousands of years, human beings lived in classless primitive-communal societies, the accumulation of a social surplus in the form of a surplus product gave rise to the emergence of classes in society. , slaves vs. masters; serfs vs. landlords; wage laborers vs. capitalists). , slavery, feudalism, capitalism). Applying these concepts to history and examining the material conditions surrounding the production and reproduction process, in effect the very basis of life itself, Marx and Engels observed the following: The way in which men produce their means of subsistence depends first of all on the nature of the actual means they find in existence and have to reproduce.