Download e-book for iPad: Classical and quantum chaos by Cvitanovic P., Artuso R., Dahlqvist P.

By Cvitanovic P., Artuso R., Dahlqvist P.

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Electrons. We find that the light scattered from the electrons, as they pass by, does not get weaker; the same sized flash is seen, but only every once in a while. This means that, at low brightness levels, we miss some electrons: we hear the click from the counter but see no flash at all. At still lower brightness levels, we miss most of the electrons. We conclude, in this case, that some electrons went through the slits without being seen, because there were no photons around at the right moment to catch them.

6. ATOMIC TRANSITIONS AND SPECTROSCOPY n 6 En 6 Ionized atom 33 6 Continuous spectrum (Unbound states: E n 0) E *  0  E 5  054 eV E 4  085 eV n  *  n5 n4 n3 n2 n1 ? ? ? Paschen series (infrared) ? ? Balmer series (visible region) ? ? ? Lyman series (ultraviolet) E 3  151 eV E 2  34 eV E 1  136 eV ? 6 Discrete spectrum (Bound states: E n  0) ? 12 Energy levels and transitions between them for the hydrogen atom. 74) The energy E n of each state of the atom is determined by the value of the quantum number n.

This process is called pair production; Anderson obtained such a process by exposing a lead foil to cosmic rays from outer space which contained highly energetic X-rays. It is useless to attempt to explain the pair production phenomenon by means of classical physics, because even nonrelativistic quantum mechanics fails utterly to account for it. Due to charge, momentum, and energy conservation, pair production cannot occur in empty space. For the process photon e  e to occur, the photon must interact with an external field such as the Coulomb field of an atomic nucleus to absorb some of its momentum.

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