By William E. Caplin
This ebook introduces a brand new thought of shape for the research of instrumental song of the classical variety that makes a speciality of formal function--how the tune works and the place it truly is going. construction upon principles first complicated by way of Arnold Schoenberg and later constructed through Erwin Ratz, the idea offers a extensive set of ideas and a finished technique for the research of classical shape, starting from the person rules making up a variety of words of topics to the large-scale association of entire routine. The ebook incorporates a targeted dialogue of normal subject kinds, considers extra wide formal areas, and at last treats the elemental association of the full-movement shape. The theoretical ideas are illustrated with over 250 annotated musical examples from Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
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Additional resources for Classical Form: Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
Descending third. 13a. More often, however, the leap in the bass voice is filled in by stepwise motion, which produces intervening passing chords in first inversion (ex. 13b-c). The passing chords introduce a degree of harmonic functionality. Since each root-position harmony is followed by a passing chord whose fundamental is a fifth above (or a fourth below), the latter stands as a "dominant" in relation to the former. 26 This functional interpretation is made even more evident when the passing chords themselves are placed in root position (ex.
The statement of a basic idea receives a response when an original version supported primarily by tonic harmony is answered by a repeated version supported by dominant harmony. A variety of harmonic patterns can create tonic and dominant versions of an idea. The simplest case arises when the statement is built entirely out of tonic and the response is built out of dominant (see ex. 19 A richer harmonization results if each of these fundamental harmonies is prolonged by neighboring or passing chords.
2). 2a resembles the cadence formula described by many harmony textbooks. This progression can indeed be classified as cadential according to criteria to be developed in the next section. In actual compositional practice, however, the simple I-V-I progression is often better understood as prolongational. Passing chords. A given harmony is prolonged by one or more passing chords when the prolonged harmony changes position from the beginning to the end of the progression. Such prolongations usually see a passing tone in the bass voice lying between the root-position and first-inversion forms of the prolonged harmony.