By Arne Beck
This ebook evaluates the successes, disasters, and elements that impression the contest for public bus shipping companies. utilizing Germany as a case learn, the writer explains the dichotomous process of a industry with licenses for advertisement providers, the place operators are granted exclusivity, and licenses for non-commercial providers, the place supplementary direct subsidies are tendered out by way of public delivery professionals. The empirical research is predicated on fundamental facts frequently now not publicly on hand, and supplemented by means of a variety of specialist interviews. The ebook goals to supply a uncomplicated knowing of the avid gamers and their innovations, provide insights into the German version, and make coverage thoughts for these whose aim is to extend competition.
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Extra info for Competition for Public Transport Services: Institutional Framework and Empirical Evidence of Bus Services in Germany
However, in the case of a competing application for commercial services, the LA must decide in favor of the commercial market initiative (priority of commercial services; see } 8  PBefG and Werner 2001, pp. 82–83), as long as the minimum criteria are met. This is also the case during or after a tendering procedure, as long as the LA has not approved the service. It is important to note that PTAs usually do not have any direct influence on the procedure for controlling the quality provided by the operator of commercial services authorized by the LA.
Following approval by the LA, operators are obliged to deliver the approved service for the full license term, usually 8 years. The responsibilities of LAs within the national market are to safeguard the security of operations for passengers and to secure the continuous delivery of services to passengers during both the validation of applications and the license term. The main tasks are to provide access to the profession of being a bus operator via a verification of the company. This permits the operator to provide public bus transport services in general.
A basic overview of this kind of market organization is presented by Pucher and Kurth (1996). Research on the economic effects of tendering includes Achenbach 2006; Augustin and Walter 2009; Beck and Wanner 2007; Beck and Wanner 2008; Berschin 2003, and von Berlepsch 2005. , Beck 2007; Beck and Wille 2009, and Walter et al. 2009). 10 2 General Literature Overview Nevertheless, to my best knowledge, there are no economic papers which analyze the effects of commercial and non-commercial services within one (regulated) market.