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Published by means of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
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3 Couplingof Meso amd Micro physics From the above discussions we see that there is a similarity betweenthe plasmaprocessesdue to velocity shearleadingto non thermalheatingin the convectionflow eddylevel, are of the orderof the eddyscale-sizewhichare much smaller than the large-scale velocity shear. , [ 1994] provides evidenceof low frequencymesoscalewave seedinghigh frequency small scale waves in the ionosphereas well. , 1994]. It is reportedthat there exists waves in the ion cyclotron and lower hybrid frequencyrangesalongwith ion heatingassociated with the velocity shear.
For example, if more than one free energyis present,or if a particular type of free energy is not easily representedin terms of macroscopicparameters which are used in large-scalefluid models, a theoreticalupper bound may not be readily applied to a macroscopiccomputation. Another caseproblematic case is that of instabilities driven by currents parallel to Bo; the fundamentallylocal characterof our formu- 19 lation of the upper bound procedure may not provide useful results for this inherently nonlocal problem.
1994] demonstratedthat this mode hasa substantially lower thresholdcurrentdensitythanthe currentdrivenion cyclotron instability [Kindel and Kennel, 1971]. , n (•--) = 0 . (10) Electrons are magnetized and hence the electron momentumbalanceequationis -eE leading - c n e dn dx = 0 ' (11) to cT Vie T eVXB dn T B eB 1 T ]. cE e (n1dx )=-•-cE[ (12) 30 CROSS-SCALE COUPLING IN IONOSPHERE Using a simplemodel for the steepeneddensitystructures, where G(to) = /i2/(/i2+1)(1-(toLH/to) 2)andtoLH 2= n(x)= n0(1+/i+tanh(x/Ln) ) where/i<< 1, wecanexpress topi2/(l+82).