By Harry B. Gray
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25 - H e first transition series ,; . ,' 0 10 20 30 40 atomic number atomic number. - . Electrons and Chewical Bonding 34 adds an extra electron to give a negative ion. 3p [ A r ] 4 s 23d104p [~r]5s~4d'~5p [ H e ]2 s2 [ N e ] 3sZ [He]2 s [ N e ]3 s [ A r ] 4 s 23d10 [ K r ]5 s2 4 dl0 EA, eV Ovbital electvonic configuvation of AHe Ne Ar Kr Xe [He]2s22 p 5 [ N e ]3 s2 3 p5 [ A r ] 4 s 23 d L 0 4 p 5 [He]2? 3 p 4 [ ~ r ] 4 s ~ 3 d ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ [ H e 1 2 32 p 3 [ N e ]3 3 p3 [Ar]4s23d104p3 [He]2 ? 4d'~50 - - aH.
A molecular orbital of this type is called a a molecalav orbital. It is clear that the two 2p, orbitals can also overlap to give a molecular orbitals, which have a node in the xz plane. There will be a bonding (nb)and a antibond- ing (a*) molecular orbitals; the more stable ab orbitals will have a , . , 7 orlg~nalorbital Figure 2-13 Rotation of a the internuclear axis. T molecular orbital by 180' about any given combination. The possible energy-level diagrams shown in Fig. 2-15. a level is uncertain.
The magnitude of this repulsion is a measure of the diamagnetism of the atom or molecule in question. The paramagnetism of atoms and small molecules that results from unpaired electrons is larger than the induced diamagnetism; thus these substances are attracted into a magnetic field. Atoms and molecules with no unpaired electrons (S = 0), and therefore no paramagnetism due to electron spin, are diamagnetic and are repelled by a magnetic field. The Hz+ ion, with one unpaired electron (S = i),isparamagnetic.