By Ernest R. Vieira
An Aspen nutrition technology textual content sequence booklet. Following the good fortune of the former versions, this well known introductory textual content keeps to supply thorough, updated info overlaying a large diversity of issues in foodstuff technology, with emphasis on meals processing and dealing with and the method of particular meals. offering a mess of easy-to-understand figures, tables, illustrated ideas and strategies, this article continues the strengths of the former variation whereas including new details. The e-book opens with a revised bankruptcy on what nutrition technological know-how really is, detailing the development of meals technological know-how from commencing to destiny. Succeeding chapters contain the most recent details on meals chemistry and nutritional concepts, nutrients borne illnesses and microbial task. an entire revision of HACCP is defined, followed by means of a variety of examples of stream charts and functions, in addition to significant additions on nutrition labeling. broad updates were made on processing equipment and dealing with of meals, resembling new strategies on: sweet making; espresso and tea creation; beer and wine creation; gentle beverages; extremely hot temperature processing; aseptic packaging; aquaculture and surimi; and UHT and low temperature pasteurization of milk. additionally, there's a thoroughly new part together with defense and sanitation to boot as laboratory routines in sensory, microbiological, chemical caliber try out, and processing equipment for numerous the meals defined in prior chapters.
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Sustained advancements in a variety of branches of technology and know-how have ended in significant advancements in meals processing equipment. those new processing applied sciences have in flip contributed to enhancement of the standard and acceptability of meals. the purpose of this e-book is to gather, for convenient reference, new advancements bearing on chosen nutrients processing applied sciences.
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Deficiency of iodine leads to low-Ievel metabolism, lethargy, and goiter, which results in an enlarged thyroid gland. There is rarely a deficiency of iodine when saltwater fish are available and eaten. Today, iodized salt prevents the deficiency but there is some concern about overconsumption of the mineral. Fast food operations use iodized salt liberally, and iodates are used by some bakeries as dough conditioners. Symptoms of toxic levels are similar to those resulting from a deficiency, that of an enlarged thyroid gland.
NATURAL TOXICANTS Some plants are able to produce compounds that serve as protectants or help ensure reproduction. These compounds may attract pollinating insects or repel animals or insects that may eat the plant. Some ofthese metabolites are quite toxic to man. Some mushrooms, for example, produce specific nitrogen-containing bases or alkaloids that cause severe physiological effects. 7. Some Natural Toxicants and Their Food Sources Toxin Cyanide-generating compounds Safrole Prussic acid Oxalic acid Enzyme inhibitors and hemagglutinins Gossypol Goitrogens (interfere with iodine binding by the thyroid gland) Tyramine Avidin (antagonistic to the growth factor biotin) Thiaminase (destroys vitamin BI) Vitamins A and D and methionine (exhibit toxic effects in excessive concentrations) Food Source Lima beans Spices Almonds Spinaeh, rhubarb Soybeans Cottonseed oil Cabbage Cheese Eggwhite Fish and shellfish many foods 46 Elementary Food Science solanine.
Some molds produce a mycelium (mass ofhyphae) that has cross walls (septa) while others do not have cross walls in the mycelium. E. R. Vieira, Elementary Food Science © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996 47 48 Elementary Food Science 088 COCCI DlPLOCOCCI SARCINA STREPTOCOCCI RODS ® ([) o 0'" G Gr STAPHYLOCOCCI )e. 1. Shapes ofvarious microorganisms. Yeasts form single cells or chains of cells that may be spherical or of various shapes between the spherical and the cylindrical. One common characteristic of bacteria, yeasts, and molds is that they can exist either as active, vegetative cells or as spores.