By Andrew C. Grimsdale, Klaus Müllen (auth.)
From the reviews:
"This assessment publication, even supposing asymmetric, will play a job in guiding scientists who're considering operating within the fields normally lumped jointly as ‘emissive nanomaterials’. it's conscientiously referenced, and every of the 4 chapters incorporates a lengthy checklist of abbreviations used therin, which may still make it more straightforward for scholar use. it really is applicable for acquisition by way of libraries.… greater than three hundred references are brought up, and this, in itself, is a beneficial carrier. … This booklet is mostly worthwhile and will be an enormous addition for many learn college libraries. supply that the sector is rising, one needs to proceed to monitor advancements heavily" (D. C. Neckers, magazine of the yankee Chemical Society, Vol. 129 (17), 2007)
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Interestingly, the bulky side chains produced no blue shift in the absorption or emission of the polymer compared with PDAFs such as 89, indicating that there is no increased steric repulsion between adjacent ﬂuorene units. LEDs using this polymer display device characteristics (turn-on voltage, emission efﬁciency, Polyphenylene-type Emissive Materials 45 Scheme 60 Synthesis of a polyﬂuorene with a polyphenylene dendron on the side chain and brightness) comparable to those for the PDAFs such as 89, but with no long-wavelength emission being seen at driving voltages below 12 V.
Satisfactory electron injection seems to be obtained by use of calcium as cathode, and a composite LiF/Ca/Al cathode is reported to give better electron injection than a simple calcium cathode , but there usually remains a large barrier to hole injection due to the difference between the HOMO and ITO energy levels. As a result, hole-injecting layers are used in PDAF devices in order to obtain good efﬁciency (Scheme 64) . Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (136) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)  is most commonly used, but recently poly(4,4 -dimethoxybithiophene) (137) has been reported to be a superior hole-injection material .
Another approach is to incorporate charge-transporting groups into the polymer, either as end groups, as units in the polymer chain or as side chains. The IBM group  have compared the efﬁciency, using both calcium and aluminium cathodes, of triblock polymers (Scheme 65) containing an anthracene–dialkylﬂuorene copolymer as the emissive block with hole-transporting poly(vinyl triphenylamine) (139) or electron-transporting poly(vinyl oxadiazole) (140) blocks at each end with the simple copolymer 111 (Scheme 53).