By Richard Frucht
In 1989, to the shock of many, the notorious Iron Curtain setting apart Western and japanese Europe collapsed. In an issue of months, a global that had existed for 4 a long time was once overturned, and international locations and those that had for hundreds of years been ruled - and from time to time destroyed - by way of their extra robust neighbours to the east and west have been detatched from the Russian sphere of impact and set on significantly new financial and political course. japanese Europe has re-emerged at the global scene in methods incredible in the course of the chilly conflict, from the unforeseen growth of NATO into former Warsaw Pact international locations to the painful makes an attempt to construct democracy and industry economies in parts that, until eventually the past due Nineteen Eighties, observed political totalitarianism and deliberate economies. extra lately, the outburst of violence linked to the disintegration of the previous Yugoslavia has been a reminder that japanese Europe remains to be a unstable and unpredictable area of the area, one nonetheless able to being pushed by way of robust feelings rooted within the far away prior. This encyclopedia explores the background of this advanced sector over the past centuries. The cornerstone of the encyclopedia are the articles on nations and areas of jap Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and the international locations that after made up Yugoslavia. extra assurance of eu Russia can also be incorporated. those articles are either certain and concise, providing the reader a quick yet finished creation right into a country's historical past over the past centuries-a the most important time whilst Europe used to be swept by means of wars and convulsive political swap that formed the current. japanese ecu historical past is frequently written from an ''outsider'' perspective-that is, from the vantage aspect of the effect of the West or of Russia in this crossroads of Europe. even if the effect of its acquaintances is a formative and defining point of japanese eu background, it's not the one one. This encyclopedia deals various wealthy aspect protecting the intrinsic cultural, political, and social phenomena of the zone. The booklet additionally covers not just the best figures who formed the region's political future, but in addition the main artists, writers, and different culturally major contributors throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. a few of these figures are identified within the West, whereas others might be new to the typical reader. a distinct neighborhood of greater than 2 hundred students of japanese Europe from the usa, Canada, and Europe - each one knowledgeable in his or her box - has been assembled to create greater than 1,000 entries. an in depth map application enriches the textual content and is helping the reader position a subject matter in geographic context. Bibliographies on the finish of entries direct the reader to obtainable resources for extra examining or examine on jap ecu heritage.
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism
Among those executed was Dragutin Dimitrijević-Apis (1876–1917), founder of the notorious Ujedinjenje ili smrt, the nationalist organization better known as the Black Hand. In 1918 the South Slav components of the defunct Austro-Hungarian Empire joined with Serbia and Montenegro to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, a constitutional monarchy under the house of Karadjordjević. Alexander served as prince regent until August 16, 1921, when he succeeded his father as king. In the 1920s ethnic and territorial disputes between the country’s two largest national groups, the Serbs and the Croats, and a related political dispute between the proponents of centralism and federalism spawned prolonged political and social disorder.
Graz, 1950. Dimitrov, Ilcho Ivanov. Knazut, konstitutsiiata i nar-odut. Sofia, 1972. Hajek, Alois. Bulgariens Befreiung und staatliche Entwicklung unter seinem ersten Fürsten. Munich, 1939. See also Alexander III; Bulgarian-Serb War of 1885; Congress of Berlin; Eastern Rumelia; Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 THE ENCYCLOPEDIA 23 Alia, Ramiz (1925–) Albanian Communist. Born in the city of Shkodër, Alia completed his high school studies in Tirana and earned a university degree in philosophy at Moscow University in 1954.
Aleksandrov negotiated an agreement with the Comintern but repudiated it and on August 31, 1924, was assassinated by his left-wing confederates led by General Aleksander Protogerov (1867–1928), who in turn were executed by Aleksandrov’s successor, Ivan Mikhailov (1896– 1990). Raikin Further reading Anastassov, Christ. The Tragic Peninsula: A History of the Macedonian Movement for Independence since 1878 . St. Louis, Missouri, 1938. Mikhailov, Ivan. Spomeni, vol. 3. Louvain, Belgium, 1967. See also Balkan Wars; Comintern; IMRO; Macedonia (History); Ivan Mikhailov; Neuilly, Treaty of; Aleksandur Stamboliiski; Young Turks Alexander I (1777–1825) Tsar of Russia.