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By Christopher P. Atwood

The purpose of this encyclopedia is to hide either the background and tradition of the Mongolian peoples and of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth and 14th centuries. whereas many see Mongol historical past easily as an outward explosion of an unlimited empire that left little legacy, the tale of Mongol heritage and tradition is additionally one of a humans and history that constructed from prehistory to the current on an analogous windswept plateau. during this encyclopedia the thing on background surveys Mongolian heritage and the quite a few interpretations of it.

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Due to manpower shortages in 1260–64, a number of craftsmen were also conscripted as soldiers, contrary to their customary immunity. In the IL-KHANATE in Iran HÜLE’Ü (1256–65) added to existing Chinese colonies at Merv (Mary) and Tabriz a Chinese artisan colony at Khvoy around his Buddhist temple. Government weapons factories, such as at Tabriz, produced about 2,000 suits of armor a year. Purchases of raw materials and payment to the artisans were often disorganized, however, and GHAZAN KHAN (1295–1304) eventually decided to purchase most weapons on the open market, keeping only a small number of weapons makers to produce less commonly used items.

As Qubilai was now occupied with rebellion in North China, Ariq-Böke’s entourage moved west, where Asudai crushed Alghu’s army and captured his ordos. Alghu fled to the Tarim Basin, and Ariq-Böke camped outside Almaligh (near modern Yining). By winter 1263–64 vengeful purges of Alghu’s army had cost Ariq-Böke valuable support. In Iran Hüle’ü ordered his son Jumqur to leave AriqBöke’s army, while one of Möngke’s sons, Ürüng-Tash, deserted to Qubilai with Möngke’s seal. Meanwhile, Alghu prepared to attack Ariq-Böke.

Around 3,200 soldiers completed some training. REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD Against the occupation of Khüriye first by about 8,000 Chinese soldiers and then by BARON ROMAN FEDOROVICH VON UNGERN-STERNBERG’s 11,400 soldiers of mixed origin, the 1921 revolutionaries, armed and trained by Soviet Russia, originally planned to fight a partisan or guerrilla war. In June 1921, however, the Russian Red Army intervened in force, sending 13,100 troops into Khüriye under K. A. Neiman. The partisan forces that made up the “People’s” or “Democratic Army” (Arad-un jirumtu tserig/Ardyn juramt tsereg) numbered around 700 before the revolutionary victory.

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