Download e-book for iPad: Environmental Nanotechnology: Applications and Impacts of by Mark Wiesner, Jean-Yves Bottero

By Mark Wiesner, Jean-Yves Bottero

Explore the homes of latest established Nanomaterials— and examine Their probably damaging results at the Environment

Environmental Nanotechnology is the 1st e-book to aid you in either realizing the houses of latest nanomaterial-centered know-how and assessing the doubtless destructive results those fabrics could have at the atmosphere.

Written by way of a crew of 29 best specialists from around the globe, this finished e-book provides state-of-the-art assurance of the fabrication, characterization, and size of nanomaterials…emerging markets for nanomaterials…nanotechnologies within the power industry…nanotechnologies for environmental quality…nanotechnology shipping and destiny within the environment…toxicological affects of nanomaterials…and even more. choked with certain illustrations, Environmental Nanotechnology features:

  • State-of-the-art strategies for the characterization and size of nanomaterials
  • The most recent findings at the delivery and destiny of nanomaterials within the setting
  • Nanotechnologies for power creation, garage, and distribution
  • In-depth analyses of the ecotoxicological affects of nanomaterials
  • New tools for constructing nanomaterials with much less environmental risk

Inside This Landmark Environmental Engineering Guide

_ • Nanomaterials: New demanding situations and possibilities • Fabrication of Nanomaterials • Characterization and dimension of Nanomaterials • rising Markets for Nanomaterials • Nanomaterial-Enabled applied sciences for power construction, garage, and Distribution • Nanomaterial-Enabled applied sciences for Environmental caliber • Nanomaterial shipping and destiny within the surroundings • Ecotoxicological affects of Nanomaterials • Toxicological affects of Nanomaterials

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Additional resources for Environmental Nanotechnology: Applications and Impacts of Nanomaterials

Sample text

Hydrolysis of metallo-organic compounds. Metallo-organic compounds, and especially metal alkoxides [40, 41], are largely involved in so-called sol-gel chemistry of oxide nanomaterials [42]. Metal alkoxides are also precursors of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, because such compounds can be used to introduce an organic part inside the mineral component [43–45]. Sol-gel chemistry mainly involves hydrolysis and condensation reactions of alkoxides M(OR)z in solution in an alcohol ROH, schematically represented as: M(OR)z ϩ z H2O → M(OH)z ϩ z ROH → MOz/2 ϩ z/2 H2O These two reactions, hydroxylation and condensation, proceed by nucleophilic substitution of alkoxy or hydroxy ligands by hydroxylated species according to: M(OR)z ϩ x HOX L [M(OR)zϪx(OX)x] ϩ x ROH If X ϭ H, the reaction is a hydroxylation.

Since they are strong and conduct energy six times better than copper, they make sense as a new option. Their size is another advantage, especially in places like New York City that have run out of underground real estate. In NYC, the underground utility corridors are so full of copper wires, it is joked that they have the greatest supply of copper in the world. Carbon nanotube cables would be small enough to be added to existing corridors. When demand outpaced supply, metropolitan utility companies would have another alternative than buying expensive real estate.

The particles orient along the field direction at intensities smaller than 350 mT but reorient perpendicular to the field beyond 350 mT. This behavior could have interesting applications. In similar ranges of acidity, the aluminate gel is transformed into platelets of hydroxide Al(OH)3, gibbsite at pH Ͻ 5, and bayerite at pH Ͼ 8 [20]. In a rather acidic medium (pHϽ 1), the same dissolutioncrystallization mechanism transforms the amorphous titanium oxyhydroxide into elongated TiO2 rutile nanoparticles.

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