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By Y. M. Xie, G. P. Steven (auth.)

Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) is a layout technique in response to the easy suggestion of progressively removal inefficient fabric from a constitution because it is being designed. via this system, the ensuing constitution will evolve in the direction of its optimal form. the most recent suggestions and result of ESO are provided the following, illustrated via a variety of transparent and unique examples. Sections disguise the basic points of the strategy, the appliance to a number of load instances and a number of aid environments, frequency optimization, stiffness and displacement constraints, buckling, jointed body constructions, form optimization, and rigidity relief. this can be by means of a bit describing Evolve97, a software program package deal so as to enable readers to attempt the tips of ESO themselves and to resolve their optimization difficulties. This software program is equipped on a working laptop or computer diskette which accompanies the book.

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2 are assumed. 2 m with equal intervals in between. 2 m. Because of symmetry, only half of the cantilever is modelled using 400 four-noded plate elements. 2 m. 22 mm. 0 mm. 5% of the initial volume. 1 m): With MRR = 1%, eight elements are subjected thickness reduction at each iteration. 11(a), of which the volume is 78% ofthe initial volume. 05 m): With MRR = 1%, 16 elements are subjected thickness reduction at each iteration. 11(b), of which the volume is 79% of the initial volume.

C) Fig. 9. 45 mm. 22 mm. Equal displacement limits are imposed simultaneously on all three loaded points in the vertical direction. Due to symmetry only one half of the structure is analyzed using a mesh of 40 x 40 four node elements. At each iteration the number of elements removed is 16, which corresponds to 1% of the initial elements. 45 mm on all loaded points in the vertical direction. The black areas represent the remaining elements and the small dots represent the nodes of the initial FEA model.

5. This result bears a striking resemblance to classical arch bridges. 3 Design of Bicycle Frames One of our ongoing research projects is the application of the ESO technique to the optimal design of bicycle frames. With the advance in composite materials and the level of competition among professional riders, new designs of bicycles have received ever increasing attention from designers, who no longer restrict themselves to the traditional diamond-shaped frame (with steel tubes linking the handlebar, saddle, chain ring and rear wheel).

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