By Patrick Loughran (auth.)
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Additional resources for Failed Stone: Problems and Solutions with Concrete and Masonry
Specific finishes and pro- capacity/stability and the fragmentation and files are better able to take abuse. For exam- propulsion of architectural and other building ple, a thermal (rough finish) on stone will hide components, which become projectile threats abrasions better than a polished finish. to life safety. 3 Blast design has become a factor in many The strength of an enclosure system ist not new buildings, and stone, concrete or mason- the only property to consider when designing ry is typically part of the solution.
Good mix concrete (See the chapter “Corrosion” for a proportioning, proper curing, and placement more detailed explanation). As with scaling, of saw-cut joints can help to reduce the spalling can also be caused by improper fin- effects of curling. ishing and curing operations and is exacerbated by the application of snow and ice removal Layer Marks products such as salt. Prominent layer marks can occur as a result of inadequate compaction and long-time inter- Reinforcement marks arise when the concrete vals between placing the layers.
By providing steel embedded in con- limitations when reduced in thickness. The crete, contemporary projects combine ductili- finish applied to a material can alter its ty with fire resistance. Both of these are criti- strength. A sandblast or bush-hammered fin- cal for the impact of an explosion. In many ish to stone will reduce the flexural strength of cases, the enclosure is sacrificial, providing the material. This can be critical when design- permanent deformation in order to absorb the ing for localized loading from impact on thin hazardous forces of an explosion.