By Andrew Geoffrey Howard Lea; J R Piggott
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Will determine to a great extent the character of the final beer. Formerly, the fermentation was carried out in open vessels, but, nowadays, most brewers are using closed cylindroconical vessels. These tanks have a conical bottom that allows an easy harvest of the yeast. A review on beer fermenter design and a description of alternative forms of fermenters is given by Maule (1986). Maturation. After the main fermentation, the flocculated yeast is removed and the beer is cooled down for maturation.
A-Amylase is an endo-enzyme that cuts the starch into rather big fragments, whereas p-amylase produces maltose. Because p-amylase works at a lower temperature than a-amylase, it is impossible to obtain a complete conversion of starch into maltose by the convential mashing process: some larger polyschaccharides (dextrines) remain in the wort. The temperature steps should be respected carefully to obtain a sufficient saccharification. The temperature-profile mashing procedure can be carried out by heating the mash in one stirred vessel, or by the so-called decoction procedure.