By G. Borgstrom
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Additional info for Fish As Food. Processing: Part 1
Because the water-vapor pressure in the system was always greater 44 A. C. JASON than the vapor pressure of ice at the initial freezing temperature of fish ( — 1 . 1 ° C . ) freeze-drying could not take place. Although shrinkage occurred during drying, the product was nevertheless somewhat porous. The time taken to reduce the moisture content of the fish down to 15% was about 7 hr. At this stage the mat of fillets was removed from the chamber, cut up into a suitable shape, compressed by means of a hydraulic ram, and subsequently dried in vacuo to a moisture content of about 5% (dry weight b a s i s ) .
Although fatty fish, such as herring, do not so easily lend them selves to preservation simply by drying alone, such products, m a d e chiefly for local consumption, are met with throughout the world from Iceland to Japan. In some Japanese products it seems possible for the temperature of the flesh to reach 3 0 ° C . during drying (Maruichi and Hino, 1957). In Africa, drying is often effected b y means of fires and the resultant products are partly barbecued, partly hot-smoked like the "bonga," produced from a fish similar to a small horse mackerel.
54 c m . / s e c . 7 c m . / s e c . and 8500 c a l . / mole. The energies of activation differ significantly but the D 0 values do not. Values of D t are approximately the same for all species of nonfatty fish; for fatty fish, the diffusion constant decreases with increasing fat content. Similar observations apply to Da values which are in general approximately one-fifth of the Di values irrespective of fat content. For practical calculations of the weight of a piece of fish at any given time, certain approximations must b e made.