By Alexander B. Morgan, Charles A. Wilkie
Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites takes a complete examine polymer nanocomposites for flame retardancy functions and comprises nanocomposite basics (theory, layout, synthesis, characterization) in addition to polymer flammability basics with emphasis on how nanocomposites impact flammability.
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Extra resources for Flame retardant polymer nanocomposites
91. INTRODUCTION TO FLAME RETARDANCY AND POLYMER FLAMMABILITY A. A. , Specialty Polymer Additives: Principles and Applications. Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 2001, pp. 271–292. W. Silicon-based ﬂame retardants, in: S. Al-Malaika, A. A. , Specialty Polymer Additives: Principles and Applications. Blackwell Science, Oxford, England, 2001, pp. 353–389. ; Serizawa, S. Silicone derivatives as new ﬂame retardants for aromatic thermoplastics used in electronic devices. Polym. Adv. Technol. 1998, 9, 543–600.
As the concentration of inhibitor is increased, the ﬂame temperature decreases. Small additions of halogen inhibitors (on the order of a few mol%) can reduce the rate of ﬂame propagation up to 10fold and have a marked effect on the ignition limits. On the other hand, halogens accelerate the formation of soot in the ﬂame. It is well established21 that Sb2 O3 is synergistic with halogen-containing ﬂame retardants because it facilitates delivery of halogen atoms in the gas phase and prolongs residence of the halogens in the ﬂame zone so that more “hot” radicals 10 INTRODUCTION TO FLAME RETARDANCY AND POLYMER FLAMMABILITY can be scavenged.
3, respectively. There is little doubt that the main mechanism of ﬁre retardant action of these hydroxides is heat absorption and dilution of the ﬂame with water vapors. 38 Since both anhydrous alumina and magnesia are white highly refractory powders, they provide heat insulation by reﬂecting heat when they accumulate on a surface. 2 Thermogravimetry of ATH and Mg(OH)2 . (From Ref. 3 Differential scanning calorimetry of ATH and Mg(OH)2 . (From Ref. ) ATH and MH are used primarily in wire and cables in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), polyethylene, and various elastomers.