By Raymond B. Keller
Flavonoids, also known as bioflavonoids, are polyphenol antioxidants discovered evidently in vegetation. they're secondary metabolites, which means they're natural compounds that experience no direct involvement with the expansion or improvement of crops. Flavonoids are plant nutrition that after ate up within the kind of vegetables and fruit are non-toxic in addition to in all probability valuable to the human physique. Flavonoids are extensively distributed all through vegetation and are what supply the vegetation and culmination of many vegetation their shiny shades. in addition they play a job in retaining the crops from microbe and bug assaults. extra importantly, the intake of meals containing flavonoids has been associated with a variety of overall healthiness merits. notwithstanding examine indicates flavonoids on my own supply minimum antioxidant gain as a result of gradual absorption by way of the physique, there's indication that they biologically set off the creation of average enzymes that struggle affliction. fresh learn exhibits that flavonoids may be nutritionally valuable via triggering enzymes that decrease the chance of sure cancers, center illness, and age-related degenerative illnesses. a little research additionally exhibits flavonoids will help hinder the teeth decay and decrease the prevalence of universal diseases akin to the flu. those strength healthiness merits, lots of which were confirmed, became of specific curiosity to shoppers and meals brands. meals that comprise excessive quantities of flavonoids comprise blueberries, crimson beans, cranberries, and blackberries. Many different meals, together with pink and yellow fruit and veggies and a few nuts, additionally include flavonoids. crimson wine and likely teas are also wealthy in flavonoids.
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Extra info for Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, Biological Effects and Dietary Sources (Nutrition and Diet Research Progress)
Albumin binding was strongest for quercetin and its sulphate and up to 5-fold weaker for glucuronides. Furthermore, different isomers of quercetin glucuronides showed differences in albumin binding behaviour. A spectroscopic study of quercetin binding to bovine serum albumin in equimolar mixtures of the two found maximal binding at 10 μM and that bound quercetin was much more resistant to oxygen-dependent degradation . Given that the human serum concentration of albumin is ~350-500 μM, ~100-fold higher than observed for any flavonoid, it was estimated that plasma flavonoids are probably predominantly albumin bound.
The Colon and Microflora Colonic microflora display an extensive capability to metabolise flavonoids that reach the colon either directly, or after intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and apical efflux of glucuronides, biliary excretion etc. Numerous studies (Table 3) have demonstrated the ability of isolated cultures, faecal slurries, etc, to remove glycosylation that is resistant to endogenous mammalian β-glucosidases and cleave flavonoids into simpler compounds. As with the published bioavailability studies, quercetin is the most studied and best understood.
Beer, unsurprisingly for a fermented product, is a good direct dietary source of small phenolic acids. Phenolic acids from beer (some of which are the same compounds as colonic metabolite acids) were readily absorbed in human subjects and the degree of conjugation varied considerably . 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid reached much higher plasma concentrations (~1 μM) than cinnamic acids, such as ferulic or caffeic acids and was predominantly non-conjugated. This suggests that simple phenolic acids, both as produced by colonic microflora and in the diet, would be readily absorbed and may be conjugated to a much lesser extent than flavonoids.