By Vivian N. Pletney
This new e-book provides new learn within the starting to be box of nutrition engineering which refers back to the engineering elements of nutrition creation and processing. nutrition engineering contains, yet isn't really restricted to, the applying of agricultural engineering and chemical engineering rules to nutrition fabrics. Genetic engineering of crops and animals isn't really generally the paintings of a nutrients engineer. nutrients engineering is a truly large box of actions. between its area of information and motion are: layout of equipment and strategies to provide meals; layout and implementation of meals security and renovation measures within the construction of meals; biotechnological procedures of nutrients construction; selection and layout of nutrition packaging fabrics; and qc of meals creation.
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Sustained advancements in numerous branches of technology and expertise have led to huge advancements in foodstuff processing tools. those new processing applied sciences have in flip contributed to enhancement of the standard and acceptability of meals. the purpose of this ebook is to gather, for convenient reference, new advancements touching on chosen nutrients processing applied sciences.
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Low hygroscopic, sensitive to high air humidity (adapted from ). 0 Water Activity, aw Figure 10. Sorption isotherms. Bound and Unbound Water If the equilibrium moisture content of a material is continued to its intersection with the 100% humidity line, the moisture is called bound water (see figure 11). This water in the material exerts a vapor pressure less than that of liquid water at the same temperature. If such a material contains more water than indicated by intersection with the 100% humidity line, it exerts vapor pressure equal to that of pure liquid at the same temperature.
The pores and throats are distributed randomly inside the porous medium. They have irregular shapes and therefore the structure of porous medium is very complex (see figure 2). Porous materials are divided into two groups as porous and capillary porous materials. This distinction is based on pore size. Materials with pore diameter equal to or higher than 10-7m are called porous materials, and smaller than 10-7m are called capillary porous materials . The majority of food materials are capillary-porous materials .
Alternatively, densities of food materials can be determined using the densities of components constituting the material : ρ= 1 ) m ∑ i / ρi (44) i ) where m i is the mass fraction of component i and ρi is the corresponding density. The mass fractions of components of food materials can be obtained from USDA Handbook 8 . The densities for basic components can be estimated using the equations given in table 4. Table 4. Densities of food components as a function of temperature. 13071T Transport Phenomena During Drying of Food Materials 39 Apparent or Bulk Density Apparent or bulk density is defined as the ratio between the current weight of the material and its overall volume.