Food Process Engineering by H. A. Leniger, W. A. Beverloo (auth.) PDF

By H. A. Leniger, W. A. Beverloo (auth.)

This ebook resulted from a long time of training engineering elements of nutrition tech­ nology on the Agricultural college ofWageningen, The Netherlands. during these years the subject material of educating has been written down and positioned on the student's disposal. The Dutch textual content has been reconsidered and revised numerous instances. finally the query arose no matter if it'd be a good suggestion to remodel and translate the textual content with the intention to move to be had wisdom and event to others drawn to the fairly new department of nutrients technology that meals procedure engineering is. this query has been replied within the affirmative. in past times just a couple of books take care of nutrition technique engineering; a few are really superficial and obviously intended as introductory, different ones have in our opinion an excessive amount of emphasis on chemical engineering and too little on nutrients approach engineering. We think - and it will be elucidated at a few size within the creation - that foodstuff method engineering is in lots of respects a truly particular department of engineering, allied to yet definitely assorted from chemical engineering. we now have regularly endeav­ oured to teach similarities among quite a few branches, stressing even as how­ ever the variations and explaining the why and wherefore of them. the current e-book illustrates this procedure. It considers engineering, technique en­ gineering and nutrition technique engineering as score during this order of emerging importance.

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The influence of shape on the flow resistance is small in the Stokes range; it is much larger in the Newton range. Very little can be said quantitatively about this, because a comparison between particles of a different shape depends on the definition of diameter and shape. It is sufficient to say that the drag co-efficients, particularly in the Newton range, increase markedly, the more the shape of the particle deviates from that of a sphere (except when the particle is streamlined). All the foregoing applies to a single particle in an infinitely large fluid-filled space.

In words: The heat-flux is proportional to the negative temperature gradient. The proportionality constant A is called the thermal conductivity. Its unit is W1m dc. In solving steady-state heat conduction problems the assumption is always made that for every volume element the sum of all entering heat flows is equal to the sum of all outgoing heat flows; otherwise the temperature would change. In vector analysis this condition is stated as: The divergence V· q of the vector field q is zero in all points, or in rectangular Cartesian coordinates: or in cylindrical coordinates: 1 orq, 1 oqtp r or r oq> oqz oz V'q=--+--+-=O TRANSPORT PHENOMENA 55 or in spherical coordinates: 1 or2qr 1 oq", 1 o (sin 1/Iq",) V'q=--+---+-0, r2 or r sin 1/1 olp r sin 1/1 01/1 where q:x; is the component of q in the x-direction etc.

TO v V a. piston flow. 0 2 2 2 11 11 2 ~1(9 ~1(9 0 .. tO v V c. perfect mixing. system with stagnant areas. - .. tO v V b. piston flow with some longitudinal mixing. Fig. 23. 49 TRANSPORT PHENOMENA The relation between F- and E-diagrams will now be discussed. When the function F(t) is differentiated with respect to time the probability density function J(t) of the residence time t is obtained. From Equation (236) for an ideal mixer: 1 J(t)=- exp(- t/'t) or t J(t)= ~exp(-tQJV). The J (t) functions have the dimension (timet 1.

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