Read e-book online Geodesy: Introduction to Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Systems PDF

By Zhiping Lu, Yunying Qu, Shubo Qiao (auth.)

Geodetic datum (including coordinate datum, peak datum, intensity datum, gravimetry datum) and geodetic platforms (including geodetic coordinate procedure, airplane coordinate procedure, peak approach, gravimetry method) are the typical foundations for each element of geomatics. This direction booklet makes a speciality of geodetic datum and geodetic platforms, and describes the fundamental theories, suggestions, equipment of geodesy. the most issues contain: a number of the strategies of geodetic info acquisition, geodetic datum and geodetic keep watch over networks, geoid and peak platforms, reference ellipsoid and geodetic coordinate structures, Gaussian projection and Gaussian plan coordinates and the institution of geodetic coordinate structures. The framework of this publication relies on a number of many years of lecture famous and the contents are built systematically for an entire creation to the geodetic foundations of geomatics.

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Extra info for Geodesy: Introduction to Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Systems

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In spite of that, Stokes’ theorem still promoted research on the geoid shape. , geodetic height) directly from terrestrial gravimetric results without any reduction. It is significant that the theorem allows direct and rigorous calculation of geodetic heights of the surface points by avoiding the geoid, which cannot be calculated rigorously in theory. Using geodetic heights, the observed values on the Earth’s surface can be accurately reduced to the ellipsoid, which enables processing of astro-geodetic surveying data to avoid errors caused by inaccurate reduction.

The major flaw of such a method, however, is that it is easily subjected to the influence of topographic conditions along the survey lines. To obtain distance measurement with higher accuracy, one has to invest large amounts of human and material resources to choose and arrange the survey routes, which can be complicated and costly. Moreover, such distance measurement cannot be carried out if there are rivers, lakes, hillocks, or ravines along the survey lines. With the progress of science and technology, in the 1940s a new type of distance measuring instrument came into being—the optical-electro distance measuring instrument, which was also the earliest type of electromagnetic distance measuring (EDM) device.

2. Measurement of the geometric and gravity field elements on the Earth’s surface under the hypothesis of a static and rigid Earth has been developed into the observation of dynamic variations of the nonrigid (elastic and rheological) Earth. 3. Regional (relative) geodetic measurement in the local reference coordinate system has been developed into global (absolute) geodetic measurement in the unified geocentric coordinate system. 4. Measurement accuracy has been increased by two to three orders of magnitude.

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