Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to - download pdf or read online

By Henry Goulet, John T. Huber

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7 for the distribution of discharge and velocity in the section. 82 ) Slopes Two slopes are important in the solution of open channel hydraulics problems: the channel invert, or bottom slope (so), and the friction, or energy grade line, slope (sf ). Calculations proceed from location to location along a stream based on the channel and friction slopes between each pair of locations. 9 illustrates the important variables in the computation process. The channel invert slope is the difference in the channel invert elevation between two locations divided by the distance between the two locations.

The units for velocity are feet (meters) per second. Water movement adds kinetic energy to the system, which is computed using the stream velocity. The kinetic energy term is added to the water surface elevation to calculate the total energy head at a cross section. If the total energy head at several cross sections is connected by an imaginary line, the line is referred to as the energy grade line. 4. 6) where V = the average channel velocity (ft/s, m/s) Q = the flow rate (ft3/s, m3/s) Even though working with average velocities is convenient, the channel velocity is not constant at any location, regardless of whether the channel is prismatic or nonprismatic.

The amount of discharge through the pipe is a function of the pressure differential over the length of the pipe. If the discharge doubles, the pipe cross-sectional area does not change, but the upstream pressure head must greatly increase to force this additional flow through the same pipe area. In open channel flow, boundaries are not fixed by the physical boundaries of a closed conduit; the free surface adjusts itself to accommodate the geometry of the channel. When the free surface adjusts itself, other geometric properties, such as the cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter, and top width, adjust accordingly.

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