Shri Singh's Liquid Crystals: Fundamentals PDF

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J. Collings, and M. , London, 1997). 41. J. S. , Handbook of Liquid Crystal Research (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1997). 42. S. Elston, and R. , London, 1998). 43. D. W. W. W. Spiess, and V. , Handbook of Liquid Crystals, Vol. 1 (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1998). 44. W. , 1999). 45. A. R. B. , Polymer Liquid Crystals (Academic Press, New York, 1982). 46. A. , Polymer Liquid Crystal (Plenum, New York, 1985). 47. L. , Recent Advances in Liquid Crystalline Polymers (Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1985).

1) have been observed74'75 in which higher symmetric mesophase re-appears in-between two lower symmetric mesophases. This kind of phenomenon is known as "reentrant polymorphism". REFERENCES 1. F. Reinitzer, Monatsch Chem. 9, 421 (1888). 2. O. Lehmann, Z. Physikal Chem. 4, 462 (1889). 3. W. , London, 1962). 4. C. Robinson, Liquid Crystals (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, London, 1966). 5. L. , 1970). 6. H. M. , Liquid Crystals 3 (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1972). 7. S. F. , 1973).

Narayanan, and A. Kumar, Phys. Rep. 249,135 (1994). 75. S. Singh, (a) Phys. Rep. 324,107 (2000); (b) Phase Transitions 72,183 (2000). 2 Distribution and Order Functions Parameters As discussed in the previous chapter, the most fundamental characteristic of liquid crystals is the presence of orientational order of the anisotropic molecules, while the positional order of the center of mass is either absent (nematic phases) or limited (smectic and columnar phases). In this chapter, we shall discuss in a systematic manner how this ordering can be described.

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