By Libin Yao
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This type of modulator is useful in digitizing signals within a certain frequency range and ﬁnds its applications in wireless transceivers. 18: Loop ﬁlter, signal and noise transfer functions of a bandpass - modulator. 4 Performance Metrics for the - ADC For oversampled ADCs, since the operation principles are different from the Nyquist ADCs, different performance metrics are used to evaluate the performance of oversampled ADCs. Some important speciﬁcations are discussed here. • Signal to Noise Ratio.
The analog signal, the natural signal from the real world, is a continuous-time and continuous-amplitude value, as shown in Fig. 1. It is the physical signal that human beings can understand naturally and is the most common signal from the real world. The digital signal is deﬁned as the discrete-time and discrete-amplitude value. It is the value that digital computers can process. Since the digital signal is easy to store, duplicate, process and transfer, the digital signal processing dominates all electronic systems.
27: Block diagram of a fourth-order cascaded 2-2 tor topology. 28: Block diagram of a fourth-order cascaded 2-1-1 tor topology.