Marine Natural Products Volume 2: Chemical and Biological by P.J. Scheuer, J. Darias PDF

By P.J. Scheuer, J. Darias

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Research on biosynthetic routes by Claes (1954, 1957, 1959), who utilized mutants of Chlorella vulgaris, has demonstrated the presence of the more saturated precursors such as phytoene (1, Scheme 2), phytofluene (2, Scheme 2), and £-carotene (3, Scheme 2) in mutants having a block in their synthesis of colored carotenoids, and 3-hydroxylation of ß rings of carotenes in the presence of oxygen and light. 5,6-Epoxidation of xanthophylls in chloroplasts in the presence of oxygen and light is a well-known phenomenon (Krinsky, 1966; Hager, 1967a,b; Sapozhnikov, 1973).

No attempt has been made to exclude freshwater representatives. For previous reviews on algal carotenoids see Goodwin (1971c, 1976) and LiaaenJensen (1978). 1. Cyanophyceae Although the carotenoid composition of unicellular blue-green algae has not yet been studied in detail, much evidence is available concerning the 17 1. Marine Carotenoids TABLE l Classification of Algaea Division Prokaryotes Cyanophyta Eukaryotes Rhodophyta Chromophyta Chlorophyta a Class Subclass Cyanophyceae Rhodophyceae Cryptophyceae Dinophyceae Rhapidophyceae Chrysophyceae Haptophyceae Bacillariophyceae Xanthophyceae Eu stigmatoph yceae Phaeophyceae Euglenophyceae Loxophyceae Prasinophyceae Chloroph yceae No.

Since neither the marine food chain, nor the detailed carotenoid composition of a particular organisms' diet are well established, carotenoids that are considered typical metabolic products of that organism may in some cases indeed originate from the food (see McBeth, 1972a). Previous compilations on carotenoids of marine invertebrates have been made by Lederer (1935), (Goodwin 1952, 1968) Cheesman et al. (1967) and Fox (1974). Much progress in identification and structural elucidation has since been made.

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