By Ryohei Hori, Ken-ichi Inui, Mikihisa Takano (auth.), Enrico Drioli, Masayuki Nakagaki (eds.)
During the previous 20 years Membrane technology and expertise has made great growth and has replaced from an easy laboratory instrument to giant scale approaches with a variety of purposes in drugs and undefined. during this quantity are amassed papers offered on the First Europe Japan Congress on Membrane and Membrane strategies, held in Stresa in June 1984. different contributions to the convention might be released in a distinct factor of the magazine of Membrane technological know-how. This convention was once equipped by way of the eu Society of Membrane technology and expertise and the Membrane Society of Japan, to assemble eu Scientists and Engineers head to head with their colleagues from Japan; in either nations membrane tactics will play a strategic position in lots of commercial components within the Nineteen Nineties, as expected via the japanese undertaking for subsequent new release Industries and by way of the EEC undertaking on easy Techno logical examine (BRITE). the massive variety of members, of approximately 400 from twenty six nations together with united states, Australia, China and Brazil, the standard of the Plenary Lectures and clinical Communications made the convention an important overseas success.
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Extra resources for Membranes and Membrane Processes
Several presentations of non-equilibrium thermodynamics adapted to hyperfiltration have been published. Spiegler and Kedem recognized that the steep concentration gradient in the membrane and its dependence on flow rate militated against the use of a simple discontinuous treatment. They introduced instead a system of differential equations for the two fluxes: salt and water. This aspect of the problem has been further explored by Vink. 7] and. more recently by introducing a frictional coefficient forma1ism.
Such as permeability coefficient. specific conductance etc. can then be determined. It was recognized that the measurement of relatively small fluxes would be necessary. To gain a picture of the ways in which water and ions are distributed in and move through the membrane, and how they interact with it and with one another. it is necessary to measure a set of transport and equilibrium properties. The choice of properties was governed by two considerations: convenience of measurement and their correlation through linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics so as to yield binary molecular friction coefficients.
Consequently a formalism which takes account of the anions and cations as separate species is needed to describe fully the interactive processes important during hyperfiltration. A suitable treatment was published several years ago based on the definition of differential discontinuous phenomenological coefficients as proposed by Michaeli and Kedem. This theory was tested and then used to characterize transport in an ion-exchange membrane and the data were transformed into binary friction coefficients.