Read e-book online Milk and milk products : technology, chemistry, and PDF

By Alan H. Varnam

Milk has been a major nutrients for guy because the domestication of farm animals and the adoption of a pastoralist agriculture. it's also the main flexible of the animal-derived nutrition commodities and is an element of the vitamin in lots of actual types. as well as milk itself, a rural expertise developed which accredited the manufacture of cheese, fer­ mented milks, cream and butter. At a later date, successive advances in expertise have been exploited within the manufacture of ice cream, concen­ trated and dried milks and, at a later date, of ultra-heat-treated dairy items, new dairy truffles and new useful items. whilst, besides the fact that, dairy items were more and more perceived as bad meals and a few prime quality dairy substitutes, or analogues, were constructed that have made major inroads into the entire dairy grocery store. ironically, maybe, the expertise which, at the one hand, provides a hazard to the dairy via making attainable top of the range substitutes bargains, however, a chance to use new makes use of for milk and its elements and to improve solely new dairy items. extra, the advance of goods comparable to low fats dairy spreads has tended to blur the excellence among the dairy and its imitators and extra broadened the diversity of information required of dairy scientists and technologists.

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12% of the total fatty acids in cow's milk is, however, relatively low. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are metabolized in the rumen and milk is therefore a relatively poor source of the essential fatty acids linoleic and linolenic. Milk fats are, however, consumed in large quantities and contribute ca. 21 g per day to the average UK diet. 3 g linoleic acid out of a daily requirement of 5-10 g. Milk fat contains substantial quantities of the vitamin A precursor ~-carotene and, in the UK, provides ca 25% of the daily intake.

The teat duct, especially the region adjacent to the orifice, can be colonized by organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, which persist for many weeks, shedding into the outgoing milk, but not penetrating to the tip sinus. Machine milking has been implicated in propelling bacteria from the teat duct into the sinus and thus producing mastitis, but other mechanisms of entry exist, including growth through the teat canal. A great many organisms can cause mastitis under specific circumstances but the most common, and the most Significant cause of economic loss, are Escherichia coli, Staph.

Standardized whole milk is defined as milk imported into the UK from another EEC country which has a fat content not less than the guideline figure. This figure is fixed annually as the weighted average fat content of the whole milk produced and marketed in the UK during the previous milk year. 1 In sickness and in health It is likely that the trend to 'healthy milks' will continue with the introduction of modified products such as low cholesterol milk and milk-based functional foods. To some extent, however, such products present a marketing dilemma since their development implies that unmodified milk is inherently 'unhealthy'.

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