Ben-Zion Maytal's Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling: Principles and Practice PDF

By Ben-Zion Maytal

This booklet is the 1st in English being solely devoted to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. the class of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us again to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of those cryocoolers is compact, lacks relocating components, and sustains a wide warmth flux extraction at a gradual temperature. probably, they settle down unbeatably quickly. for instance, cooling to less than a hundred okay (minus 173 Celsius) could be comprehensive inside of just a couple of seconds through liquefying argon. a degree of approximately one hundred twenty okay will be reached nearly immediately with krypton. certainly, the species of coolant performs a primary position dictating the dimensions, the depth and the extent of cryocooling. it's the JT influence that drives those cryocoolers and displays the deviation of the "real" gasoline from the perfect fuel homes. The 9 chapters of the ebook are prepared in 5 parts.

The universal precept of Cyrocoolers shared around the extensive number of cryocooler types
Theoretical points: the JT impact and its inversion, cooling capability of coolants, the liquefaction approach, sizing of warmth exchangers, point of pressurization, discharge of strain vessels
functional elements: modes of operation (fast cooldown, non-stop, multi-staging, hybrid cryocoolers), strain resources, configuration, building and applied sciences, stream adjustment, MEMS, open and closed cycle, cooldown method and similarity, brief behavior
Mixed Coolant cryocooling: conception, perform and applications
Special subject matters: real fuel choked move charges, fuel purity, clog formation, optimum mounted orifice, modeling, cryosurgical units, warming via the inverse JT effect

The theoretical points could be of curiosity not just to these operating with cryocoolers but in addition for others with a basic curiosity in "real" fuel thermodynamics, similar to, for instance, the inversion of the JT impression in its differential and quintessential kinds, and the outstanding habit of the quantum gases.

A particular record of references for every bankruptcy includes a huge literature survey. It involves greater than 1,200 proper courses and 450 similar patents. The systematically geared up content material, prepared less than an intensive hierarchy of headings, supported by means of 227 figures and forty-one tables, and followed via quite a few chronological notes of evolution, allows readers a pleasant interplay with the booklet.

Dr. Ben-Zion Maytal is a Senior Researcher at Rafael-Advanced security platforms, Ltd., and an accessory Senior educating Fellow on the Technion-Israel Institute of expertise, Haifa, Israel.

Prof. John M. Pfotenhauer holds a joint appointment within the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Physics on the college of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Additional info for Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling: Principles and Practice

Sample text

3 The Composition of High Pressure Mixed Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 High Pressure Operation and Proposals . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Optimized High Pressure Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Mixing On-Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Mixing Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . .

A3: 371 371 371 372 372 372 Parameters of Gases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Area, m2 Repulsion parameters in van der Waals’ equation of state, m3 molÀ1 Second, third, fourth etc. 3 Second, third, fourth etc. 161 Frequency, sÀ1 F FOM Force, N Figure of merit, COP=COPCARNOT G g Mass flux, n_ =A, mol mÀ2 sÀ1 Gravitational acceleration, 9:81 m sÀ2 Gibbs free energy, h À T s h Specific enthalpy, J moleÀ1 Convective heat transfer coefficient, W mÀ2 KÀ1 Specific stagnation enthalpy, h þ r V 2 =2, J molÀ1 Specific enthalpy of saturated gas, J molÀ1 h0 hG xxxiii xxxiv hF hR hIG DhT DhMAX T hMIX DhMIX dhD dhU H i I IM Nomenclature Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, J molÀ1 Residual specific enthalpy, based on common ðP; T Þ, J molÀ1 Ideal gas specific enthalpy, J moleÀ1 Specific enthalpy change at constant temperate, (integral isothermal Joule-Thomson effect), specific cooling content of gas, J molÀ1 Maximum DhT value along the differential inversion curve, J molÀ1 Specific enthalpy of a mixture, J molÀ1 Specific mixing enthalpy, J moleÀ1 Downstream recuperated enthalpy, h5 À h4 , J molÀ1 Up stream recuperated enthalpy, h2 À h1 , J molÀ1 Total enthalpy, J Ineffectiveness of a heat exchanger, 1 À e Irreversibility, the loss of potential useful work, J Inefficiency, 1 À  Interchanger’s magnification index (Sect.

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Elements of Cryobiology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ‘‘Cold’’ Cryosurgical Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Cooling by a Boiling Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Cooling by Melting Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Cooling by a Sublimating Agent. . . . . . . . . . . 4 ‘‘Warm’’ Cryosurgical Machines .

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