Download e-book for kindle: Molecular Models of Photoresponsiveness by Bernard F. Erlanger (auth.), G. Montagnoli, B. F. Erlanger

By Bernard F. Erlanger (auth.), G. Montagnoli, B. F. Erlanger (eds.)

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L Ergosterol absorbs maximally about 280 nm and the resulting inversion and fission reactions are initiated by photon absorption. Enzymes for carrying out these reactions are not known. Prior to modern times, deficiencies in vitamin D resulted in the disease rickets with deformations in leg bones and twisted spines. With the identification of these compounds at the turn of the century it has been possible to add vitamin D2 made commercially by irradiating yeast ergosterol to milk and foods. Such anti-rachitic supplements have virtually eliminated the disease and the dependence of man upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

Only some specific interactions, such as in charge transfer complexes require a somewhat more refined treatment. • X·b . j is the electronic molecular wavefunction describing the electronic cloud in the j state, the states being classified in the order of increasing energy (Eel,o < Eel,l < Ee l,2 < ••.. < Eel,i<"); the lower state is called the ground state. s~nce Xvibr,j,i descri~es the vibrational state of the nuclear frame; to a molecule w~th N nuclei correspond (3N-6) vibrational LIGHT MIGRATION AND ENERGY UTILIZATION 31 modes, in all generality, the index 1 should be replaced by (3N-6) indices, (3N-5) for linear molecules, each of which denoting a vibrational mode; S is the spin wave function which for practical purpose in organic molecules can be assumed to take only two possible values corresponding to singlet (total electronic spin = 0) or triplet (total electronic spin = 1) states.

PHOTOMOVEMENTS The spatial reorientation of plant parts to unidirectional light stimuli is well-known. However, although phototropism has been described for many species and this primarily blue-light induced photoresponse has been studied intensively35 for many decades the identification of the photoreceptor remains uncertain. In most cases it seems clear that the photoreceptor is a flavin which probably mediates as the initial biochemically important event a change in cytochromes. The arguments for and against flavins and carotenoids as photoreceptors have been reviewed carefully many times.

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