By Faraci G.
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2. Phase change processes. , liquid to solid, vapor to solid). The initial phase provides ease of handling. For example, in injection molding, molten polymer is able to flow into small channels and features, and then solidify into a rigid part. Similarly, in casting, molten metal can be forced to fill complex geometries. Less familiar perhaps are the vapor-to-solid processes such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD). In these processes, energy is used to transform the desired material 6/12/08 1:31:53 PM 38 Nanotechnology and the Environment into a vapor or plasma form, which is then deposited onto the substrate, typically in a thin film.
Uk. (Accessed October 15, 2006) 10. Ratner, M. and D. Ratner. 2003. Nanotechnology: A Gentle Introduction to the Next Big Idea, 12–13, 35. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference. 11. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Nanoscale Program Approach for Comment: Information Collection in Support of EPA’s Stewardship Program for Nanoscale Materials; Reporting Form. Attachment A: Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program Data Form. 12 July. htm. (Accessed July 13, 2007) 12.
2006. Nanoprobes and nanobiosensors for monitoring and imaging individual living cells. : Nanotechnol. Biol. , 2:22–30. 21. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2004. News Release: ORNL nanoprobe creates a world of new possibilities. 14 July. 22. A. A. Resnek, K. Mahmud, and Y. Kutsovsky. 2003. Carbon black. In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4:761–803. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 23. International Carbon Black Association. 2004. Carbon Black User’s Guide. org. (Accessed August 30, 2007) 24.