Nanolithography: The Art of Fabricating Nanoelectronic and - download pdf or read online

By Martin Feldman

Abstract:

Lithography is the method of patterning and etching to create built-in circuits and different units on semiconductor wafers. Photolithography can't be scaled down a lot extra so with a view to deal with the long run relief in measurement of semiconductor chips to nanoscale dimensions, scientists have grew to become to replacement nanolithography applied sciences. as well as scaling concerns, the expanding integration of a number of services inside of a unmarried gadget poses additional demanding situations which force strategies in nanolithography and nanofabrication. Chapters disguise lithographic strategies, together with optical projection, severe ultraviolet (EUV), nanoimprint, electron beam and ion beam lithography, and purposes of nanolithography in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and microfluidics.

Description:

Integrated circuits, and units fabricated utilizing the suggestions built for built-in circuits, have progressively reduced in size, extra complicated, and extra strong. the speed of shrinking is remarkable - a few parts are actually quite a few dozen atoms huge. This publication makes an attempt to respond to the questions, "What comes next?” and "How will we get there?”

Nanolithography outlines the current state-of-the-art in lithographic thoughts, together with optical projection in either deep and severe ultraviolet, electron and ion beams, and imprinting. distinctive recognition is paid to comparable matters, reminiscent of the resists utilized in lithography, the mask (or lack thereof), the metrology wanted for nano-features, modeling, and the constraints because of characteristic aspect roughness. furthermore rising applied sciences are defined, together with the directed meeting of wafer good points, nanostructures and units, nano-photonics, and nano-fluidics.

This ebook is meant as a consultant to the researcher new to this box, examining similar journals or dealing with the complexities of a technical convention. Its aim is to provide adequate historical past details to let any such researcher to appreciate, and have fun with, new advancements in nanolithography, and to head directly to make advances of his/her own.

* Outlines the present cutting-edge in replacement nanolithography applied sciences as a way to do something about the longer term aid in measurement of semiconductor chips to nanoscale dimensions
* Covers lithographic strategies, together with optical projection, severe ultraviolet (EUV), nanoimprint, electron beam and ion beam lithography
* Describes the rising functions of nanolithography in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and microfluidics

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Extra resources for Nanolithography: The Art of Fabricating Nanoelectronic and Nanophotonic Devices and Systems (Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials)

Sample text

This is primarily driven by the feature density dependence as seen in the Rayleigh equation, where resolution is determined by the periodicity or pitch of an object. Theoretically, geometry of any size could be imaged, regardless of how small it is, so long as its periodicity falls above diffraction limits. This is why the minimum half-pitch designation of a resolution limit is more useful than the minimum feature size. In practice, however, the resolvability is determined by a photoresist’s ability to print such an image into a well-defined three-dimensional structure.

An example of such a lens is shown in Fig. 13, where over 20 lens elements are combined in an all-refractive reduction projection lens. Reduction ratios for such lenses have been as large at 10× and as small as 2×. Problems associated with large field scaling and the implications for very large masks made 10× reduction impractical for high volume manufacturing. A small reduction ratio of 2× causes challenges for masks since feature sizes, mask defects, and dimensional control are nearly as difficult as for 1× reduction.

This is primarily driven by the feature density dependence as seen in the Rayleigh equation, where resolution is determined by the periodicity or pitch of an object. Theoretically, geometry of any size could be imaged, regardless of how small it is, so long as its periodicity falls above diffraction limits. This is why the minimum half-pitch designation of a resolution limit is more useful than the minimum feature size. In practice, however, the resolvability is determined by a photoresist’s ability to print such an image into a well-defined three-dimensional structure.

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