By Michael J. Zehetbauer, Ruslan Z. Valiev
Those court cases of the "Second foreign convention on Nanomaterials through critical Plastic Deformation" overview the big clinical avalanche that has been constructing within the box over contemporary years. A beneficial source for any scientist and engineer operating during this rising box of nanotechnology.
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Several theoretical approaches lead to a grain size dependence of the hardness or mechanical strength. The hardness increases as the inverse of the square root of the grain size. Several authors have reported that this well established behavior changes drastically as the grain size gets below a critical value in the nanometer regime. In this case the material becomes softer as the grain size is reduced and consequently, the effect is named Inverse Hall-Petch effect. It is obvious that different processes which require a lower stress than the dislocation-grain boundary interaction are operative in the nanometer regime.
Moreover, solid state (mechanical) alloying beyond the thermodynamic equilibrium solubility limit can lead to the formation of amorphous metallic materials as observed for a broad range of alloys with a considerable atomic size mismatch and a negative enthalpy of mixing. This process is considered as a result of both mechanical alloying  and the incorporation of lattice defects into the crystal lattice . More recent investigations demonstrate that the nanostructure formation can also occur for several unexpected cases, such as materials with positive enthalpies of mixing, brittle ceramics, ceramic / metal nanophase mixtures and polymer blends.
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