By Dr. Günther Palm (auth.), Dr. Günther Palm (eds.)
You cannot inform how deep a puddle is till you step in it. while i'm requested approximately my occupation, i've got methods of answering. If i need a brief dialogue, I say that i'm a mathematician; if i would like a protracted dialogue, I say that i attempt to know the way the human mind works. a protracted dialogue usually ends up in extra questions: What does it suggest to appreciate "how the mind works"? Does it aid to be taught in arithmetic in case you try and comprehend the mind, and what sort of arithmetic may help? What makes a mathematician become a neuroscientist? this can lead right into a metascientific dialogue which i don't like par ticularly since it is generally too far flung the floor. during this e-book I take particularly a special strategy. I simply commence explaining how i feel the mind works. during this rationalization my solutions to the above questions turns into transparent to the reader, and he'll probably study a few evidence concerning the mind and get a few perception into the construc tions of man-made intelligence.
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How do we connect them to the output neurons whose activity is for example correlated to a particular limb movement? These questions merely indicate that the "theory" of a neuron as a detector of something is not enough (see also John 1972). Electrophysiology, especially if carried out outside the primary input and output areas, needs a theory! As for the electrical activity on the surface of the brain (EEG, evoked potentials), these measurements can be used in two ways: a) As a superposition of single neuron activities they can be used as an additional source of information about the electrical activity of all the single neurons contributing to surface potentials.
2. a Each matrix can be realized as in b. b The matrix for (St ,m t ) corresponding to Fig. 1. The "vertical wires" of Fig. 1 are realized as threshold neurons (Fig. 4) with threshold k (= 5). The weights correspond to the dots of Fig. 2 How to speed up learning (2nd problem). The algorithm can be improved by the strategies described in (3) (4) and (5), and I think this will be enough. 3 How to anticipate (3rd problem). For game-playing machines there is an obvious way oflooking ahead a number of moves.
Third argument: nor can be constructed by them: How? By the way, it is clear that there are many more possible threshold neurons than just m'V, my and m". Therefore many input-output relations can be wired in a much simpler way with threshold neurons than with or-, not-, and and-machines. For example Fig. 2 can be wired as in Fig. 5. 26 How to Build Well-Behaving Machines Fig. 5. Here the weights wi are +1 or -1 , corresponding to the possible insertion of not-gates in Fig. 2. The threshold of the vertical elements is set equal to the number of + I 's in their weights to perform the and operation.