By T. Borne, G. Lochak, H. Stumpf

This booklet, which offers a brand new view of quantum box idea, may perhaps function a examine monograph and another textbook interpreting themes which aren't frequently handled in traditional works.

the 1st half includes a new nonperturbative regularization and likelihood interpretation, in addition to a brand new remedy of potent dynamics for quantum fields in accordance with algebraic illustration concept in sensible areas. within the moment half those equipment are utilized to chosen subject matters in excessive strength physics. In a generalization of de Broglie's fusion idea, gauge bosons and fermions are regarded as composites and the fundamental dynamics of the electro-weak quarter of the normal version is derived as an efficient conception from a regularized spinor fields version. Linear gravity is mentioned within the comparable means.

*Audience:* This quantity will attract researchers interested in the root of the speculation of topic and forces together with gravitation. it's going to even be of curiosity to these operating with quantum box theoretic equipment in a number of disciplines, similar to particle physics, nuclear physics, condensed topic physics, and relativity.

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2 Review of Regularization 47 v) Fusion versus GUTs, strings, and membranes Although in some periods wild speculations about fusion models and theories were made, owing to the lack of an adequate mathematical tool for the description of fusion in the realm of quantum field theory, the majority of high energy physicists tried to derive the manifold of elementary particles from ever increasing symmetry groups. This led to so called grand unification theories (GUTs) and in connection with regularization to supersymmetric unification theories.

88). 93) we must write: is the Levi–Civita symbol). 22) again, we find the Maxwell equations (same remark as above). 29). 24). But this implies the identity where is a scalar whilst is a pseudo-scalar. 24) “are entirely equivalent (at least when vectors and pseudo-vectors are assimilated)”. Nowadays we pay more attention to parity and we cannot neglect such a discrepancy: an equality like is unacceptable. 9 The Particles with Maximum Spin 2. Graviton 33 It seems that two solutions may be suggested: 1) The photon is an electric photon, but the spin 0 component must vanish.

But the problem is: how shall we build the theory of relativity? De Broglie’s answer is summarized by one of his favorite jokes: “Light is not obliged to go at the velocity of light”. 7 The Problem of a Massive Photon 23 maximum invariant velocity, but we do not need it to be the speed of light. It only happens that, in vacuum, the velocity of light is very close to this limit. 4 Black Body Radiation In a unit volume there are stationary waves. This number must be multiplied by 2 because of the transversality of light waves, which gives, in Planck’s law, a factor 8.