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By Professor Dr. H. T. Hammel, Professor Dr. P. F. Scholander (auth.)

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There is, however, a growing notion that "matric potential", in one form 5Rust lings in the f orest. '" So in 1916 he studied twigs taken from a helght of 25 m and found that alr leaked through at 3 atm whlch was only half of the estlmated pull during transplration (8). He then told the followlng story: "Years later Dr. MacDougal at the desert laboratory at Tucson lnvlted me to see his famous dendrograph In actlon. Clamped to a tree It wrote a diurnal curve of the diameter of the trunk, shrinking by day, swelling by nlght, beautlfully In llne with the coheslon theory.

Screw clamp holds vine alr tlght against button. Rlght: hydrostatlc gradlents in four vines. Slopes are 10 m elevatlon per atm sap pressure (88). Related to these experiments are others performed on the long and narrow climbing stems of rattan palms (87). The slender stems grow from a basal leaf rosette and reach up into the canopy of 31 forest trees some 30-50 m high. Evidently the stem grows faster than the host tree, for loops 10-20 m long are commonly found lying on the ground. A tall stem about 2 cm thick was looped at the base, cut under water and connected with a burette, so the drinking rate of the crown could be measured.

1°C or less (83, 86). This gave an osmotic potential between sap and sea water of some 25 atm, and even higher gradient between sap and parenchyma cells. In other words the mangroves should have a sap tension of at least -25 atm if the cohesion theory were valid. e. an analog to reverse osmosis, which is used by desalination industries. There would be one big difference, however: in the industrial process the water is pushed through a membrane, in plants it would have to be pulled through the root membrane (cf.

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